CASE technologies are tools that provide automated assistance for software development to the developers. The goal of introducing CASE tools is to reduce the time of development, reduce the cost of software, and the enhancement of the quality of the software. Upper CASE tools are used to capture, analyze and organize the models of system. These models help designers to focus on the systems linear behaviour. Lower CASE tools are used for development and software maintenance phases. Using these tools developers classify the scope and boundaries, describe current system, model requirements, prototyping, prepare design, etc. Integrated CASE tools provide support for Upper CASE and Lower CASE tool activities. Integrated CASE tools helps specifically in Analysis & Design, Maintenance and system planning. Integrated CASE tools provide the support throughout whole development lifecycle.
This paper is almost about, what we already know about the use of CASE tools. First of all we see if get similar results to previous studies on the use of CASE tools. Then we will look in more depth and try to find more about the use of CASE tools and their developments. First of all we will look in the companies which are using CASE tools, what feature they are using of CASE tools? Secondly does CASE tools change or help the software developer in any way or not if yes then how and if not then why? Thirdly we look at the antecedents of intentions use a computer tool, and explore how motivated systems developers are to actually use CASE tools. This study will add depth to what already know about the usage of CASE tools, what are the factors that donít let CASE tools to penetrate in society, why CASE tools are not helpful for labour in saving time and try to discuss the other question like these? This report discuss the CASE tools introduction, history and growth of CASE tools and their use in past ten years, and especially the usage of CASE tools increase or decrease, if decrease what are the factor that can be improved and how these factor can be improved. Why the most of the big software houses donít bother to use the CASE tools in their development process. And finally the hurdles in the promotion of the CASE tools as a standard.
2.1 History of CASE Tools
Right from the beginning of software development, software engineer have been in search of such tools that will prove helpful for them in the modeling of system, understanding of system in easy way and in many other ways to provide ease to the people related to computer science. From 1968 to 1971 they are a lot of improvement done in this regard like the top-down structure design, benefit of modularity and step by step code refinement were admitted, up to 1975 quality, and reliability of software were the big issues and testing procedures were adopt for software reliance.
The main start of CASE tools start in 1980ís, when documentation, diagrams and design tools were introduce in this field. In same decade automated analysis design check, automated code generation and linking design utilities were introduce. In same decade importance of CASE tools was considered for the large scale system and CASE establish as an industry. Now a dyas there are lot of CASE tools even more than one CASE toils for same problem. Now tools are available that help developers to analyze, design and for the documentation of the software. Even CASE tools are available for deployment and maintenance of the software. Tools like Erwin, Rational Rose has create there importance in the market due to their qualities and reliability. In last ten years CASE tools has emerged as an interactive technology and has gained good position in the software development fields. They are still in the process of improvement like the other fields of the world, because every human created thing in this world has always room for improvement.
3.0 Need of CASE
Software developers always looking for such CASE tools that help them in many different ways during the different development stages of software, so that they can understand the software and prepare a good end product that efficiently fulfill the user requirements. CASE tools provide the ways that can fulfill this requirement of software developers. These tools provide computerized setting to software developers to analyze a problem and then design its system model.
3.1 Good Points of CASE Tools
1. They provides better perceptive of system.
2. Facilitates communication among team members.
3. Tools are more effective for large scale systems and immense projects.
4. CASE tools provide visibility of processes and logic.
5. CASE tools improve quality and productivity of software.
6. CASE tools reduce the time for error correction and maintenance.
7. CASE tools provide clear readability and maintainability of the system.
3.2 FACTORS INFLUENCING THE SUCCESS OF CASE
CASE tools facing many troubles in creating a suitable place in market e.g.
1. Even after the completion of the design it is not necessary that it will fulfill the requirements.
2. Though CASE tools are helpful for the developer but do not assure that the design is according to the requirements.
3. Good quality CASE tools are very expensive and prove costly for the development.
4. CASE tools also required training for the user that increase the overall cast of development.
5. Almost every tool has its limitation that decreases its use and popularity.
6. Some tools may have very limited functionality and may not address all possible domain activities.
7. Every tool has a specific methodology for designing and modeling of the system. Due to this youíre bound to follow them that decrease the flexibility which decrease the use of CASE tools.
8. Frequent users get used to it and afterward developers try to use the same approach and tool for other projects whether the tool addresses the target projects problems or not.
4.0 Use of CASE Tools
The purpose of CASE is to reduce the cost and time required for the system development and the focus is on the quality of the end product. CASE is not being used as it was being expected. Most of the companies are reluctant to adopt the CASE tools. It is observed that CASE is being used but not in many companies. ďThe reasons for abandonment included cost, lack of measurable returns, and unrealistic expectations. Organizations that used CASE tools and found that large numbers of their systems developers were not using CASE tools. He reported that in 57% of the organizations surveyed that were using CASE tools, less than 25% of the systems developers used the toolsĒ (Diane Lending 1998). And in those companies where CASE is adopted only few people are using CASE tools. In a survey of 67 companies it has been observed that 69% companies had never used CASE tools. And those people who are using CASE tools admitted that the use of CASE tools improved the standard of documentation and in result the system was easier to test and maintain. But people who used CASE tools also admitted that using CASE tools requires more time and effort and also adds in overall development time.
Less then 30% of the potential users and developers use the CASE and those who use it, uses the simplest and basic functionality of the CASE tools. This shows that even after getting so much popular CASE tools are not adopted and used so much in the software development industry as they expected or as they should be used. Just after one year of introduction 70% of CASE tools are never used, 20 are used by one group and 5 % of CASE tools are used in general[Juhani Iivar,1996].
It has been observed that CASE Tools are not being used from the time CASE got recognition. CASE is being approached experimentarily and involves a very long learning curve.
5.0 Implications in CASE Tools
Need for comprehensive CASE plan framework that considers estimated requirements for people, time, and money in the course of CASE adoption (awareness, commitment selection, and implementation)Ē [ Ronald J. Norman,1991].
CASE is not being used as it was expected; there are many factors that affect the use of CASE tools.
Many tools are costly and most companies are unwilling to implement these CASE tools by the fact that it increases the overall cost of the project. And second thing if a company does not get any extra by using CASE tools then why should they use CASE tools, which are expensive for it in the end.
5.2 Time Limitation
There is always a time limit for every software project for development. Most of developers do not adopt CASE because it requires a lot of time to train developers and perform all CASE activities and there are always deadlines to complete the project. You have too meet deadlines of the company but if you use CASE tools you cannot finish your project on time, which is also a factor in less use of CASE tools.
Training is a big concern while any company going to use a new tool, which is quite costly procedure. They have to train there developer for the efficient use of that particular tool. Most of the companies avoid using CASE tools because of this fact that they would have to train a large number of staff and it is expensive and as well as time consuming.
5.4 Lack of Concern
Most of the developers who use CASE tools are not fully satisfied from the CASE tools, which are why they are quite neutral about the usefulness of the CASE tools. The developer does not fully enjoy using CASE tools and if some of them do so, they use only limited functionality of the CASE tool. Many developers use CASE tools as a requirement of organization only. Developers do not seem motivated to use CASE tools and this lack of interest is on of the big factor in less use of CASE tools.
5.5 Technical Limitations
Every CASE tool follows a methodology for the model the system. People who use any specific CASE tool for a longer period of time get used with the methodology of that tool and they try to apply the same methodology for other projects.
Most of the tools have their hardware and software requirements. These requirements should meet to use that tool. This is another hurdle in CASE tool adoption for those companies who does not meet hardware or software requirements to use CASE tools. Tool should not be plate form dependent either of software or hardware.
5.6 Technology Transfer and Insertion
One of the main challenges in CASE adoption is technology change. CASE depends on planning, managing and early experiences and it can not be guaranteed even by experienced people that CASE can easily be incorporated.
Environment is another factor that plays important role in the failure of CASE tools. Is there any practice exists in the organization to adopt new technology and effectively learn it, opposition is always there for the new emerging technology and public donít like to change the existing technology, because they have to learn it before using it. Behavior of people towards change in organization is also very important, if developers and other related people in an organization are willing to implement and adopt new technology, then there are fewer problems.
5.8 Selection of CASE Tool
It is also a big concern that an organization must choose a appropriate CASE tool that suite there organization, but unfortunality most of the time developer are not consulted and management use to select the CASE tool that is a big hurdle in the way of CASE tool penetration. Before selecting any new technology, people who uses them must be consulted because they can better argue that how they can effectively use the CASE tool. As there are many tools for same problem in the market tool selection is a big concern as well.
Tool must not be selected due to its advance features, because most of the advance feature may concern organization donít use in their project. And organizations pay more money for what they donít have to use in the end. There are a lot of tools available in market so you should be careful and try to choose an appropriate tool.
We have seen that CASE tools plays an important role in Software Development and getting its appreciation in software development industry slowly but surly. But CASE is still in growth and there are different perceptions about CASE.CASE tools are not being used as they are expected to. Though, there are many new CASE tools available in the market and integrated CASE tools provides significant help and support for developers and programmers throughout SDLC in design and development activities but CASE tools have never been first choice for the majority of developers. Research about CASE usage in different organizations has shown that CASE is not always welcomed by developers and programmers and has never been as a tool of choice in organizations. And where CASE is used, the developers are using only minimal required functionality.